Salish Sea

Effects of Ocean Warming Across the Life Cycle of Bull Kelp

Bull kelp (Nereocystis luetkeana) forests have been declining over the last century in some areas of the Salish Sea, particularly those that experience elevated temperatures and low current velocities. Bull kelp have a biphasic life cycle with two very distinct free-living stages: a large diploid sporophyte, which can reach the surface of the ocean, and microscopic haploid gametophytes, which live on the bottom of the ocean. Temperature stress can impact the entire life cycle of bull kelp.

Conservation, Restoration and the Challenge of Complex Life Histories

Loss of corals around the world is a well-publicized example of change in our oceans, but in the Salish Sea we have seen abalone nearly disappear while wasting syndrome has devastated seastar populations. At the same time, invasive European green crab populations threaten to overwhelm some local habitats. A feature common to corals, abalone, seastars, and green crabs is a life history that includes multiple life stages.

A Way of Life


Register for the Zoom Webinar.


A presentation and discussion with Lummi educator, fisher and tribal leader Tim Ballew.

This talk will be online as a Zoom webinar.




An overview of the Salish Sea Environment and the work of the Salish Sea Institute

This talk will give an overview of the Salish Sea, it’s environmental significance and challenges. It will cover some of the obstacles in managing the Salish Sea as an international system and provide information about the work of the Salish Sea Institute at WWU. Ginny will set the stage for the winter quarter series that focuses on the Salish Sea and explain a bit about what’s to come and why.

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